Essential Git Commands

Here are several git commands I keep having to Google. This is either due to barely using them, or just them not sinking in. Hopefully this list will help you out as well!

Create a New Branch and Move into It

Very simple, but took me a while to remember! Create a new branch and move into it with one command.

git checkout –b branch-name

Merging and Upstream Repository into your Local Branch

You have forked someone else’s repo to make an update and provide a pull request. Whilst working on your patch other changes have been made and pushed to the master. This then puts your branch out of sync.

To make sure you are always up to date, you need to merge the most recent changes.

Firstly, move into your local branch

git checkout [your-branch]

 

Then grab the master branch from origin, and set up as a branch on your local.

git remote add upstream git://github.com/ORIGINAL-DEV-USERNAME/REPO-YOU-FORKED-FROM.git

 

Now get all the commits

git fetch upstream
git pull upstream master

 

Then finally merge the master branch into your branch

git merge master

Undo Last Local Commit

You have just pushed a commit, and then realise that it wasn’t quite right. You could send another commit to fix it, but it is faster and cleaner to undo this.

Preserve Local Changes

git reset --soft HEAD~1

Delete Local Changes

git reset --hard HEAD~1

Delete Multiple Local Commits

What happens when you have committed 3 or 4 changes, then realised you have gone in completely the wrong direction? Don’t want to be undoing the last commit over and over.

git rebase -i HEAD~3

 

Change out the 3 for any number of commits.

Delete Remote Commits

Did you make a mistake and then push to the remote? Not a problem. Just be careful with this command as you will overwrite your remote commits and could break the world.

After rolling back your local commits (using the above commands), do the following:

git push -f origin [branch-name]

 

This forces the push over the existing remote branch.

Reset File to a Certain Point

You have been working on a new piece of code, and have decided that you want to reset a single file back to a certain point, but leave everything else as you have built.

git checkout [commit hash] -- [filename]

This only changes that one selected file.

Squash last n commits into one commit

Working on a large project? It is a nightmare to go through multiple small commits to see progress. If there are lots of small commits you could turn to one, use the following command.

git rebase -i HEAD~5
git reset --soft HEAD~5
git add .
git commit -m "Update"
git push -f origin master

Need to Move to Different Work? Stash it!

When you need to move to a different part of the project while still working on the current branch, use:

git stash

 

Another great site for git pointers is: https://rogerdudler.github.io/git-guide/. It’s quite pretty as well!

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